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I. The Economy That Roared
  A. Boom industries
    1. Interrelated forces stimulated the economic expansion of the 1920s.   
    2. Wartime and past war profits supplied investment capital to mechanize mass production techniques stressing standardization of parts and the assembly line.
    3. The expansion of electricity cuts costs and improved manufacturing while spurring demand for new home products.
    4. The automobile industry drove the economy and stimulated related industries.
    5. The aviation, chemicals, radio, and motion pictures industries also experienced rapid growth and expansion.
  B. Corporate consolidation
    1. Corporate mergers rivaled those of the turn of the twentieth century.
    2. The spread of  oligopoly, the control of an industry by a few companies, was particularly evident.
    3. The automobile, electric light and power, banking and national chain stores led the corporate consolidation.
    4. Americans accepted the idea that size brought efficiency and productivity.
  C. Open shops and welfare capitalism
    1. In the 1920s, business attacked labor seeking the open shop to break union-shop contracts and collective bargaining.
    2. Businesses used boycotts, yellow dog contracts, spies and strikebreakers to weaken unions.
    3. Welfare capitalism was presented as an alternative to unions and provided medical services, insurance programs, pensions, and vacations for workers.
    4. Companies also promoted company unions.
    5. Union membership fell from 5.1 million in 1920 to 3.6 million in 1929, partly from business pressures and partly from conservative union policies that neglected ethnic and black workers.
  D. Sick industries
    1. Not all industries prospered in the 1920s.
    2. Coal mining, textile and garment manufacturing, and railroads declined as a result of excess capacity, shrinking demands, low returns, and labor-management conflicts.
    3. American agriculture never recovered from the 1921 depression with surpluses and shrinking demand forcing down prices despite improves techniques and mechanization.
    4. Racial discrimination worsened conditions for Hispanics and blacks in farming.

II. The Business of Government
  A. Republican ascendancy
    1. Republicans gained control of Congress and the White House in 1920.
    2. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover and Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon shaped economic policy throughout the twenties.
    3. Hoover worked to expand prosperity by building ties with leading sectors of the economy and supporting business efficiency. Mellon pushed for tax reduction on businesses and the wealthy.
    4. Republicans also curtailed government regulation seeking a more collaborative relationship with business.
  B. Government corruption
    1. Harding’s administration witnessed substantial corruption, including the Teapot Dome Scandal that leased government oil reserves to oil companies.
  C. Coolidge prosperity
    1. Coolidge confined government’s role to helping business and won reelection on the platform of Coolidge prosperity.
  D. The fate of reform
    1. Reformers experienced few successes.   

III. Cities and Suburbs
  A. Expanding cities
    1. Urbanization impacted every region.
    2. Older industrial cities of the Northeast and upper Midwest grew the most, attracting migrants from the rural South and Appalachia.
    3. Rural Southerners also flocked to southern cities.
    4. Western cities grew rapidly, especially Los Angeles that became the nation’s fifth largest city in 1930.
    5. The population growth altered the urban landscape as land values soared and developers built skyscrapers.   
Map: Population Shifts, 1920-1930

  B. The great black migration
     1. While southern segregation and violence made migration attractive to blacks, northern job opportunities made it possible.   
    2. Over a million and a half blacks moved to         northern cities in the twenties where they crowded into ghettos and worked at jobs that offered salaries less than those of whites.
    3. Migration brought black communities political and economic power, autonomy and increased racial consciousness.
    4. Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association espoused racial pride and black nationalism.
  C. Barrios
     1. Hispanic migrants also came to the city in the twenties, creating communities call barrios.
    2. Puerto Ricans migrated to New York City but Mexico supplied the most immigrants.
    3. Racism restricted Hispanics to racially defined districts.   
    4. In 1929, the League of United Latin American Citizens organized to advance civil rights for Hispanics.
  D. The road to suburbia
    1. Suburbs grew twice as fast as cities in the twenties.
    2. Automobiles created the modern suburb which was sprawling and dispersed and the single-family home surrounded by a green lawn became the social ideal.
    3. Many suburbs excluded Jews, African American, Hispanics, and working-class people.
    4. The rise of suburbs stimulated highway construction and with the automobile led to the creation of new industries, including shopping centers,  drive-in restaurants, and  fast food franchises.

IV. Mass Culture in the Jazz Age
  A. Advertising the consumer society
    1. Advertising’s focus on consumption helped shape the new society. Traditional virtues of thrift, prudence, and avoidance of debt were replaced by consumption.
    2. Via print, skywriting, and new media, advertisers exhorted Americans to buy a growing number of goods and services.
    3. Advertisers sought to create a single mass market that consumed brand-name products.   
    4. The home as the focus of consumerism, especially as electricity spawned new household appliances.
  B. Leisure and entertainment
    1. Recreation and leisure were important features of the new mass society.
    2. Elaborately decorated theaters attracted moviegoers. Movies helped spread common values and helped set societal trends.
1914  In his second big-screen appearance, Charlie Chaplin plays the Little Tramp.
         Winsor McCay unleashes Gertie the Dinosaur, the first animated cartoon.
1915  D. W. Griffith's Civil War epic, The Birth of a Nation, introduces the narrative close-up, the flashback and other elements that endure today as the structural principles of narrative filmmaking.
1921  The Sheik debuts and establishes star Rudolph Valentino as cinema's best-known lover.
1923  German Shepherd Rin Tin Tin becomes film's first canine star.
1924  Walt Disney creates his first cartoon, "Alice's Wonderland."
1925  Sergei Eisenstein makes Potemkin, a revolutionary portrait of mutiny aboard a battleship. In the hands of Eisenstein, montage is raised to the highest structural role in filmmaking, serving as the unifying element of the medium.
Ben-Hur, costing a record-setting $3.95 million to produce, is released.
1927 Vaudevillian Al Jolson astounds audiences with his nightclub act in The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length talkie.
1928 
Walt Disney introduces Galloping Gaucho and Steamboat Willie, the first cartoons with sound.

    3. Radio and the phonograph also expanded entertainment and popular culture.   
    4. Country, blues, and especially jazz music became popular.
    5. Professional sports also prospered and became more commercialized. Baseball, boxing, and football drew huge crowds.
  C. The new morality
    1. The promoting of consumption and immediate gratification weakened traditional self-restraint and fueled the need for personal fulfillment.
    2. Sexual pleasure became an open objective.
    3. Young people embodied the new morality, embracing new dances, bootleg liquor, smoking, revealing clothing, and sexual experimentation.
    4. The new morality was not as widespread or as new critics and advocates suggested.
  D. The searching twenties
    1. Many writers rejected the materialism, conformity, and provincialism of the developing mass culture. Their criticism made the twenties a fertile literary decade.
    2. Called the Lost Generation, these writers had responded to the brutality and hypocrisy of the war with disillusionment and alienation.

V. Culture Wars
  A. Nativism and immigration restriction
    1. After years of campaigning for immigration  restriction, nativists succeeded in passing legislation that imposed a literacy test on immigrants.
    2. The National Origins Act of 1924 placed strict quotas on immigration that worked against eastern and southern Europeans.
    3. In western states, Japanese were prohibited from owning or leasing land and were blocked from becoming citizens.
    4. Filipinos were not subject to the National Origins Act and migrated in heavy numbers to the United States.
  B. The Ku Klux Klan
    1. A revived Ku Klux Klan attracted several million members by the mid-1920s.
    2. The Klan had a very public stance, sponsoring public picnics, parades, charity drives, and other social events.
    3. The Klan exploited racial, ethnic, and religious prejudices, campaigning against alien creeds.
    4. The Klan was rooted in the countryside but attracted many urban residents.
    5. The Klan showed some political power but scandals and exposes led to its quick decline.
  C. Prohibition and crime
    1. To enforce the 18th Amendment, the Volstead Act was passed to outlaw the manufacture, sale, and distribution of liquor.
    2. Especially in urban areas, evasion of prohibition was easy.
    3. To supply the growing demand for liquor, organized crime developed elaborate distribution networks.
    4. Support for prohibiton waned throughout the 1920s.
  D. Old time religion and the Scopes Trial
    1. Protestant fundamentalism that stressed the infallibility of the Bible was challenged by the theory of evolution.
    2. Fundamentalists demanded strict biblical Christianity and supported efforts to outlaw the teaching of evolution.
    3. John Scope, a high school biology teacher tested a Tennessee law leading to a sensational trial where Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan faced off as opposing attorneys.
    4. Fundamentalism was mocked before a national audience but the issue remained unresolved.

VI. A New Era in the World?
  A. War debts and economic expansion
    1. The United States was the world’s major economic power in the 1920s. The war had changed it from a debtor to a creditor nation.
    2. An unstable system of American loans, high  tariffs, and European payments was installed to pay off war debts. A constant flow of money from the United States kept the system afloat.
    3. As exports of manufactured good soared, American businesses became multinational companies.
    4. The government helped open doors for American businesses in other nations.
  B. Rejecting war
    1. Popular reaction against World War I stimulated a strong peace movement.
    2. Naval disarmament conferences were held in Washington in the early twenties.
    3. In 1928, the U. S. helped draft the Kellogg-Briand Pact that renounced war and was signed by 64 nations.
  C. Managing the hemisphere
    1. The United States continued to dominate Latin America to support its interests.
    2. The Inter-American Conference denied the right of any nation to interfere in the internal affairs of another nation.

VII. Herbert Hoover and the Final Triumph of the New Era
  A. the 1928 election
    1. Republican Herbert Hoover faced Democratic candidate Al Smith in a campaign that pit rural     fundamentalism, anti-Catholicism, prohibition, and nativism against an urban Catholic opponent of prohibition connected to an immigrant constituency
     2. Hoover was elected president in1928 on the boast of the final triumph over poverty.

VIII. Conclusion
•  The New Era of the 1920s changed the United States.
•  Technological and business innovations combined with new labor patterns, a growing concentration of corporate power, and government policies to alter the economy.
•  Social changes included a massive migration from rural to urban areas, the rise of consumerism, new media, and growing tensions between traditional and modern culture.
•  The impact of the decade’s trends was uneven as some profited while others lost as change proceeded.
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