PSB Study Tips
Preparing for Examinations
Reducing Test Anxiety
Before the Test: The Four R’s
- REST — Get enough sleep.
- RELAX — Watch out for caffeine in coffee, tea, or sodas.
- READY — Arrive ahead of test time.
- RESTROOM — Use it. You will not be allowed to leave the test area during testing.
- Reduce your test anxiety. Try this!
- Relax your face and feel yourself smiling on the inside.
- Breathe deeply and slowly through your nose, hold, slowly exhale through your mouth. Do this three times.
- Preview the test.
- What types of questions are asked?
- What do the written directions say?
- What is the test administrator telling you about the test?
- Plan your time.
- How many questions are there on the test?
- How much time do I have?
- How much time do I have for each question?
- Answer the easiest questions first. Answer all the questions. Leave no blanks. Allow time for this at the end of the test period.
- You will answer all the questions you can answer correctly, in case time runs out before you answer all the questions.
- You might think of answers to some difficult questions.
- You might find answers to some of the difficult questions.
- Read each question twice and answer it or move on to the next question.
- After you have answered all you can, repeat this process.
- For any questions that you can’t answer, make an educated guess.
- Check your answers carefully to avoid careless errors. DO NOT change answers unless you are positive your answer is wrong.
After the Test
Relax. Remember you did the best you could.
This part of the test determines a person’s accumulated information of the Natural Sciences on a fundamental level. Knowledge of the Natural Sciences (biology, chemistry, health, safety, etc.) is important to the course of study of Nursing and Allied Health program.
There are certain concepts that are related to Natural Sciences, which must be understood as essential points of information:
Basic Concepts Related to Natural Sciences
- Atoms are the smallest units of matter
- Atoms are bound together to form molecules…the building blocks of living cells.
- Cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals.
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA0 are compounds that store and process unique genetic information within the nucleus of a cell.
- Heredity is the transmission of genetic information within the nucleus of a cell.
- Mature cells bind together in distinct patterns from tissues; tissues unite to form organs, and organs unite to form the systems of a body.
All life processes are based on metabolism…chemical reactions that capture, store, and use energy in a cell.
- All cellular functions depend on specific types of proteins, especially enzymes.
- Chemical breakdown is the result of enzymes and activators.
- Homeostasis is the constant maintenance of internal balance…a major part of metabolism.
- Continuos regulation of internal conditions (such as levels of substances in cells or body fluids or pH or temperature) are kept within narrow ranges.
All life processes are controlled through body systems:
- In animals, the respiratory system transports oxygen to the blood and eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood.
- In animals, the circulatory system transports all nutrients to the cells and wastes from the cells.
- In animals, the digestive system chemically breaks down foods and delivers nutrients to the circulatory system.
- In animals, the excretory system removes metabolic waste excess substances from the body.
- In animals, the musculoskeletal system generates motion and maintains posture.
- In animals, the nervous system communicates internally to control and coordinate all body activities in response to environmental stimuli (light, temperature, touch, and other physical conditions).
All living forms need interdependent relationship with other living forms: they form a complex relationship determined by their environment.
- The kinds and amount of life found in different environments is determined by temperature, light, moisture, and soil.
- All animals depend on food (food chain).
- Food chains exist because all living things need energy.
- Only organisms with chlorophyll can make food.
- Inorganic matter is synthesized into food for plants; plants provide food for animals.
- Living organisms in the same environment form an interrelated community and form close associations with one another (symbiosis).
- These close associations either benefit both partners (mutualism) or benefit one partner at the expense of the other (parasitism).
Conservation of resources
- Supplies of natural resources can be depleted.
- Supplies of natural resources can be expanded (to some extent) through new ways of increasing food production; developing new sources of energy; recycling of waste materials; conserving natural habitats and soil.
Steps on how to read for standardized tests
- Questions about a passage do not appear in order of difficulty; however, passages themselves are usually from least to most difficult.
- Always skim the questions for a passage before you actually read the passage.
- As you quickly read the passage, concentrate on the main idea and main points.
- Next, note specific examples in fact filled areas.
- Notice keywords that indicate a shift in viewpoint. Some examples of these words are: but, however, although, nevertheless, moreover, and unless. What kinds of shifts do these words indicate?
- Don’t grab at a likely looking answer. Eliminate those that are wrong so you choose the correct answer.
- Lengthy quotes are seldom correct answer choices. Tests are to see if you understand what you read.
- Use what you do know. Truth is truth.
- Watch out for answer choices that express strong emotion. How often does something happen always or never?
Types of questions you will see on the test
- Main idea: What is the point that the writer is making? What should I remember about this paragraph? What is this essay about?
- Supporting details: What in the essay holds up or supports the main idea?
- Factual information: What pieces of specific information support the main idea or is an example you should remember?
- Inference: What information is implied, not directly stated, or said that is opposite of what the author means?
- Context clues: What do words mean when their definition is gained from the meaning.